Diseño y Validación de un Instrumento para Evaluar la Justicia Social Percibida en la Escuela

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Educational evaluation has traditionally been taken as a resource for quality improvement, based mainly on academic success. Recent research also values studying the perception that students have about other personal, family, social and school aspects –of the student body–. The purpose of this research is to design and validate an instrument for evaluating the Perceived Social Justice in Education (JSP-E) of students in primary and secondary education, in all its phases, from its definition, the operationalization of this in dimensions, indicators and items. Through the mixed methodological approach, combining the qualitative and quantitative perspectives, and depending on their usefulness in each phase of the study, the evidence of logical validity has been collected from the inter-subjective judgment of experts, followed by the evidence of metric performance during the pilot and final study, using the conclusions from each phase to make improvements to the instrument throughout the investigation. The logical review study was based on assessments using the criteria of relevance, clarity and susceptibility to change and inter-judge agreement. Successive metric studies have used classical metric models and item response theory models to find evidence of functioning and make adjustments according to the demands of different criteria such as homogeneity of items, dimensionality of the instrument, reliability and validity of the test, difficulty of item and adjustment to the theoretical model of measurement. Finally, the exploratory study of contrasts between groups has been based on the use of parametric and non-parametric tests to consolidate the conclusions and suggest future research avenues. Based on these considerations, the JSP-E scale has been developed as an instrument, in its intermediate version for the pilot study with a total sample of 300 male and female students in the city of Valencia (Spain); and subsequently, the instrument of the final study was applied to an additional sample of 954 male and female students from the Valencian Community and Cuenca (Spain). In total, 1,254 Spanish students have participated through each of the metric validation phases of the JSP-E measurement instrument. The initial instrument proposal had 34 quantitative responses in favour of the evaluation by expert judges and has been left with 24 quantitative Likert response items with options from 1 to 4 for the pilot study and the final study. The design of the JSP-E scale has not focused on the individual diagnosis of students or even on the specific diagnosis of educational institutions, since it aims to contribute to the improvement of the global institutional evaluation and of educational systems. Therefore, it reveals a novel evaluation instrument since there are few works that have this intention. In addition, an analysis of response profiles has been carried out in relation to other constructs and isolated items of the Education Evaluation Model based on Social Cohesion, such as the constructs of Emotional Competence, Resilience and Sociocultural Inclusivity. Finally, and in a very general way, the results obtained show that the students surveyed feel a lack of recognition and participation in their schools.
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