A trans‐omics comparison reveals common gene expression strategies in four model organisms and exposes similarities and differences between them

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2021
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Abstract
The ultimate goal of gene expression regulation is on the protein level. However, because the amounts of mRNAs and proteins are controlled by their synthesis and degradation rates, the cellular amount of a given protein can be attained by following different strategies. By studying omics data for six expression variables (mRNA and protein amounts, plus their synthesis and decay rates), we previously demonstrated the existence of common expression strategies (CESs) for functionally related genes in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here we extend that study to two other eukaryotes: the yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe and cultured human HeLa cells. We also use genomic data from the model prokaryote Escherichia coli as an external reference. We show that six-variable profiles (6VPs) can be constructed for every gene and that these 6VPs are similar for genes with similar functions in all the studied organisms. The differences in 6VPs between organisms can be used to establish their phylogenetic relationships. The analysis of the correlations among the six variables supports the hypothesis that most gene expression control occurs in actively growing organisms at the transcription rate level, and that translation plays a minor role. We propose that living organisms use CESs for the genes acting on the same physi-ological pathways, especially for those belonging to stable macromolecular complexes, but CESs have been modeled by evolution to adapt to the specific life circumstances of each organism.
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Forés Martos, Jaume Forte Deltell, Anabel García-Martínez, J. Pérez Ortín, José Enrique 2021 A trans‐omics comparison reveals common gene expression strategies in four model organisms and exposes similarities and differences between them Cells 10 2 334