La interseccionalidad: de la teoría al diseño de políticas públicas
Intersectionality as a theoretical concept emerged in the face of the shortcomings of the 20th century feminist movement to represent those other realities that had been silenced. We are talking about racialized women, homosexuals, prostitutes, workers, among many others, who did not fit into the political subject that served as the basis for the suffragette struggle. Authors such as Angela Davis, Gloria Anzaldua, bell hooks, Monique Witting, denounced the exclusion of white, bourgeois and heterosexual feminism, which inevitably put the class interests of privileged women above the rest of women. Their main idea is to question that gender inequality is universal and is reproduced in the same way in all women. Thus, they proclaim the relevance of considering other factors such as race, class, identity or sexual orientation, in their intersection with gender, in order to understand the particularities of inequality. Thus the concept of intersectionality is born, from the hand of Crenshaw and Hill Collins, as the phenomenon by which the intersection between gender, ethnicity, class, ability, identity and sexual orientation, among other dimensions, generates the distribution of power between social groups. It is for this reason that intersectionality within public policies makes it possible to incorporate the specificities of groups and thus avoid all types of discrimination. It is worth asking ourselves at this point: why is it important for our equality policies to take into account the particularities of all of us in order to meet the objectives of inclusion, equality and protection of diversity? We start at this point from the idea of the non-neutrality of public policies and the need for state intervention to tackle gender inequality. Thus, a tool that can help us to design public policies that favor the inclusion and universality of all recipients is necessary. This TFG exposes the advantages of intersectionality in the design of public policies, both from the theoretical point of view, as well as from the praxis, through the selection of cases. Thus, this work ends with the evaluation of the design of two Spanish local public policies that have introduced the intersectional approach in their design.