Proximity Effects on the Charge Density Wave Order and Superconductivity in Single-Layer NbSe2

Collective electronic states such as the charge density wave (CDW) order and superconductivity (SC) respond sensitively to external perturbations. Such sensitivity is dramatically enhanced in two dimensions (2D), where 2D materials hosting such electronic states are largely exposed to the environment. In this regard, the ineludible presence of supporting substrates triggers various proximity effects on 2D materials that may ultimately compromise the stability and properties of the electronic ground state. In this work, we investigate the impact of proximity effects on the CDW and superconducting states in single-layer (SL) NbSe2 on four substrates of diverse nature, namely, bilayer graphene (BLG), SL-boron nitride (h-BN), Au(111), and bulk WSe2. By combining low-temperature (340 mK) scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, we compare the electronic structure of this prototypical 2D superconductor on each substrate. We find that, even when the electronic band structure of SL-NbSe2 remains largely unaffected by the substrate except when placed on Au(111), where a charge transfer occurs, both the CDW and SC show disparate behaviors. On the insulating h-BN/Ir(111) substrate and the metallic BLG/SiC(0001) substrate, both the 3 × 3 CDW and superconducting phases persist in SL-NbSe2 with very similar properties, which reveals the negligible impact of graphene on these electronic phases. In contrast, these collective electronic phases are severely weakened and even absent on the bulk insulating WSe2 substrate and the metallic single-crystal Au(111) substrate. Our results provide valuable insights into the fragile stability of such electronic ground states in 2D materials.
Bibliographic reference
Dreher, Paul Wan, Wen Chikina, Alla Bianchi, Marco Guo, Haojie Harsh, Rishav Mañas Valero, Samuel Coronado Miralles, Eugenio Martínez-Galera, Antonio J. Hofmann, Philip Miwa, Jill A. Ugeda, Miguel M. 2021 Proximity Effects on the Charge Density Wave Order and Superconductivity in Single-Layer NbSe2 Acs Nano 15 12 19430 19438