
It is noted that the CabibboKobayashiMoskawa (CKM) matrix elements for both quarks and leptons as conceived in the dualized standard model (DSM) can be interpreted as direction cosines obtained by moving the Darboux trihedron (a 3frame) along a trajectory on a sphere traced out through changing energy scales by a 3vector factorized from the mass matrix. From the Darboux analogues of the wellknown SerretFrenet formulas for space curves, it is seen that the corner elements (Vub,Vtd for quarks, and Ue3,Utau1 for leptons) are associated with the (geodesic) torsion, while the other offdiagonal elements (Vus,Vcd and Vcb,Vts for quarks, and Ue2,Umu1 and Umu3,Utau2 for leptons) with the (respectively, geodesic and normal) curvatures of the trajectory. From this it follows that (i) the corner elements in both matrices are much smaller than the other elements, and (ii) the Umu3,Utau2 elements for the lepton CKM matrix are much larger than their counterparts in the quark matrix. Both these conclusions are strongly borne out by experiment, for quarks in hadron decays and for leptons in neutrino oscillations, and by previous explicit calculations within the DSM scheme.
